*** For 4 Persons ***
- Chicken breast: half a kilo (boneless and skinless)
- Salt, to taste
- Black pepper to taste
- Flour: 1/4 cup
- Olive oil: 2 1/2 tablespoons (or 3 1/2 tablespoons unsalted butter)
- Garlic: 2 cloves (crushed)
- Apple cider vinegar: 1 1/2 tablespoon
- Soy sauce: 1 tablespoon
- Honey: 1/3 cup
- Cut the chicken breast in half, lengthwise, so that 4 pieces are formed. Sprinkle salt and pepper on each side of the four chicken pieces.
- Flour is placed in a wide dish; The chicken pieces were followed in the flour, while shaking the rest.
- Warm two tablespoons of oil (or melt 3 tablespoons of butter) in a frying pan, on medium to high heat; Cook chicken pieces for 3 minutes, until they turn golden. Turn the chicken pieces over to the other side, and cook for a minute.
- Reduce the heat until medium to high; Add the onions, and pour the rest of the oil (or butter) over the onions, stirring gently when the butter melts or the oil is warm. Pour the vinegar, add soy sauce and honey, while stirring. When the sauce boils, reduce the heat, and keep the ingredients on the fire for a minute, noting the thickness of its consistency.
- Return the chicken to the pan; When you notice the thicker consistency of the sauce, dilute it with a little water. Serve the chicken right away, with the remainder of the sauce.
- Bonne Appétit!
The true nature of the hen, origins and history of her breeding.
Although the agribusiness took a late interest in the hen, it remains the domestic animal most artificially manipulated by humans. We therefore fully understand its morphology, anatomy, lifestyle, diet, and we master the methods of breeding, reproduction and selection. Despite this, the history of the hen species remains laced with obscure points, even if some of them have been clarified in recent years following the publication in the journal Nature, at the end of 2004, of the decoded genome of the hen.
When the hens had teeth …
The era of the dinosaurs spanned from -230 to -65 million years ago. Paleontologists agree that it was during this period that small feathered dinosaurs first appeared (around -150 million years ago, at the end of the Jurassic), which gradually evolved towards their modern bird forms: adaptation of the skeleton and lightening of the bones, passage from gliding flight to flapping flight, appearance of the beak and disappearance of teeth (around -80 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous). This adaptation allows birds to survive the 5th mass extinction, which saw the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs as well as many other species of the animal kingdom. The bird can then continue its natural evolution until it meets humans.
When the man meets the hen …
Around 10,000 years ago, the first humans settled down and went from the status of hunter-gatherers to that of producers (farmers-breeders). We estimate the period of domestication of the hen between -8000 and -6000 years before our era in Asia. It is certain that at this time the hens lay between 5 and 20 eggs per year, like wild birds. This poor performance is therefore probably not at the origin of the breeding of gallinacea. Depending on the geographic areas where humans have established themselves, dogs, cows, goats, sheep, pigs are already domesticated. The search for food is therefore not the absolute priority, especially with regard to the size of the animal (300 to 700 g for a Bankiva). Did the rooster only serve as a morning alarm clock? It’s a safe bet that it was partly the fighting instinct of this bird that prompted humans to introduce it to their villages as a distraction through cockfighting.
We can also assume that the very colorful plumage of the males was used to make ornaments and decorations. Later, thanks to their small size, hens allow nomadic caravans as well as navigators to travel with a supply of food that is easy to transport. The hen would have spread throughout the world through this intermediary and would have arrived in Europe around -700 BC. AD by the Mediterranean basin.
Nowadays, there are four species of primitive hens still present in the wild, each having their geographical area in Asia: the golden rooster, the Sonnerat rooster, the Lafayette rooster and the Java green rooster. It was long believed that only the Bankiva rooster, a subspecies of golden roosters, was the origin of all our domestic hens, but we know since 2008 that part of the genetic heritage of Gallus Gallus Domesticus comes from the Sonnerat rooster and probably other species or subspecies now extinct.
The astonishing 12th century mutation in domestic hens
From Antiquity to the Renaissance, the domestic hen became a very common animal in all the provinces of Europe. Kings such as Charlemagne (742-814) or Henri IV (1553 – 1610) encourage its breeding.
De très récentes recherches publiées dans la revue « Molecular Biology and Evolution » mettent en évidence une mutation génétique qui ne concerne que l’espèce domestique. Ce gène, appelé TSHR, est à l’origine de deux changements radicaux chez la poule : une ponte plus abondante, répartie sur une plus grande partie de l’année, et une sociabilité accrue entre les poules elles-mêmes. L’analyse ADN de nombreux fossiles permet de situer l’apparition de cette mutation vers l’an 1100. Les chercheurs pensent qu’elle aurait été induite par deux causes essentielles :
- le développement du Christianisme, qui impose la pratique du carême, une période de 40 jours par an pendant laquelle il est interdit de consommer la viande et la graisse d’animaux à quatre pattes. Cette restriction n’incluant pas les oiseaux et les œufs, on comprend aisément l’importance de disposer de volailles lors du jeûne annuel.
- l’intensification de l’urbanisation, qui diminue l’espace disponible et favorise les élevages de poules de plus en plus confinés.